Logical Fallacies (list and examples):

1. Katie Hogan sucks
Hasty Generalization- a conclusion drawn about an entire group based on one peculiar piece of it
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My 90 year old neighbor is obsessed with her cats so all elderly women are obviously crazy cat ladies.
Explanation: Hasty Generalization is when you take a small percentage of a group or one person and make an assumption about the group as a whole. It may be true but is very unlikely because of such a small scope of observation. It is often used in situations involving prejudice, sexism, or bias.

2. Domenica Dowling
Slippery Slope: a course of action that once taken will lead to additional actions until some undesirable consequence results
Two Types:
  • Non Causa Pro Causa (Non-Cause for Cause): inferring that something is the cause of something when it isn't
Example:
If today you can take a thing like evolution and make it a crime to teach it in the public school, tomorrow you can make it a crime to teach it in the private schools, and the next year you can make it a crime to teach it to the hustings or in the church. At the next session you may ban books and the newspapers. Soon you may set Catholic against Protestant and Protestant against Protestant, and try to foist your own religion upon the minds of men. If you can do one you can do the other.
-Clarence Darrow (The Scopes Trial)
Explanation: This type of slippery slope is based on the idea that a controversial action will ultimately lead to some form of bad action.
  • Vagueness:there are borderline cases where it is unclear whether the term applies or not.
Example:
The term old:
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Betty White is old; she is 89. Selena Gomez is young;she is 19. Brad Pitt is 47. It is not completely clear whether he is young or old.
Explanation: There is no set age for what is old and what isn't old. Therefore, Brad Pitt would be an example of a borderline case because to Betty White he would seem young but to Selena Gomez he would seem old.

3.) Amanda Hamilton.
Appeal to Ignorance: the fallacy that a proposition is true simply on the basis that it has not been proved false or that it is false simply because it has not been proved true.

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"People have been trying for centuries to prove that God exists. But no one has yet been able to prove it. Therefore, God does not exist."

Explanation: Just because something cannnot be proved doesn't mean that it exists or doesn't exists.


http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/fallacies.html


4.) David Basile
Appeal to Force - a type of logical fallacy where you use threats to persuade your point of view. If you do not listen to these threats then negative consequences will happen.

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A father says to his kid, "Johnny if you don't do well on your math test you will be punished and grounded for a month".

Explanation: The logical fallacy makes a threat to force the person being threatened to act a certain way or face the consequences. Johnny was threatened about doing well on his math test. He was told that if did bad he would be punished. Therefore John will do well on his math test or face being being slapped by his father.

5. Alicia Darcy. Appeal to Flattery:a flattering compliment or speech;excessive,insincere praise.

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"Before you make your decision on my sentence, I'd like to inform you that I've heard that you are the best and most respected Judge in this area, and I love how you've done your hair today."

Explanation:
This is a logical fallacy that uses flattery, excessive compliments, in order to gain support for their side. It is usually used to cover up the hidden truth behind the intent of the flattery. It could only be effective if the other side was to comply with the flattery.

6.) Taylor Schmidt:
"Appeal to Pity" - preying upon the audience's sypmathy to solicit a favorable response.
Arguments that use pity, grief, or bereavement often use these emotions excessively to distract the audience from the facts. These appeals are often aimed directly at the individual’s emotions: the guilt, pity, or remorse that someone feels encourages him to act out of sympathy.
Example:
A campaign promoter says: “If elected, Bob Dole will be remembered as one of our greatest Presidents. He was wounded in World War II and fought back from paralysis to become the nation's longest-running Senator.”
Explanation:
Although this story is true, it is irrelevant to the role of being a good president. It appeals to our emotions to make the voters sympathize with Bob Dole and distract them from what they should be focusing on in an election: his political traits, causing them to solely vote for him out of pity.


Kevin Deiling

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Begging the Question- a fallacy in which the premises include the claim that the conclusion is true or assume that the conclusion is true.
It is usually done in the following form:
1.Premise in which the truth of the conclusion is claimed or the truth of the conclusion is assumed.
2. Claim the conclusion is true
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If a man was interviewing for a job, the following conversation could be an example begging the question.
Interviewer: "Your resume looks good, but I need another reference to prove that you are trustworthy."
Man being interviewed: "Dale can give me a good reference."
Interviewer: "Good. But is Dale is trustworty?"
Man being interviewed: "Certainly. I can vouch for her."


Begging The Question:
Circular reasoning is the best fallacy and is capable of proving anything.
Since it can prove anything, it can obviously prove the above statement.
Since it can prove the first statement, it must be true.
Therefore, circular reasoning is the best fallacy and is capable of proving anything.

8.) Ramil Erasmo
Genetic Fallacy- The idea that something is not a good product because of where it came from. http://web.cn.edu/kwheeler/fallacies_list.html
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I don't want to buy a house in the south because my neighbors will be hillbillies who have cars on their front lawn and are always drunk.

Sarah White
Affirming The Consequent
-logical reverse.
"If P then Q"
"Q"
"So P must be true"

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Example: If it's a fish, it swims in the ocean. It swims in the ocean. Therefore, it must be a fish.

10.)Anthony Caputi. Appeal To Majority-When a claim is made on the basis of the majority.
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Since most people love and watch the superbowl commercials they must be hilarious and popular.
Explanation: Since the majority of people like the superbowl commercials then the commercials must be funny. This fallacy allows people to believe that the majority is always right.

11.) Dana Schules: Missing the point
Definition: The premises of an argument do support a particular conclusion—but not the conclusion that the arguer actually draws.
Explanation^:
this fallacy is used by people who want to prove something but do not know how, so they use any argument and then tack their desired conclusion on to the end. This is something that politicians often do.This is effective persuasion when the listener does not work through the logic of the argument and is persuaded simply by the fact that some kind of argument is being used.
http://changingminds.org/disciplines/argument/fallacies/missing_point.htm
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Example: "There has been an increase in burglary in the area. It must be because there are more people moving into the area."
Explanation: the claim states that there is an increase in burglary, but the conclusion stating that it is due to more people moving into that specific area does not support it. There is a conclusion being drawn but not one that helps or makes the claim of " an increase in burglary" stronger.


12. Monica Emma: Guilt by Association Exposition:
Description: Guilt by Association is the attempt to discredit an idea based upon disfavored people or groups associated with it. This is the reverse of an Appeal to Misleading Authority, and might be justly called "Appeal to Anti-Authority". An arument to authority argues in favor of an idea based upon associating an authority figure with the idea, whereas Guilt by Association argues against an idea based upon associating it with disreputable people or groups.
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A lot of Americans allied themselves with the communists and fought against the Facist goverment in Spain. Because they did this, it must mean they were communists as well.
Exposure:
McCarthyism was a specific version of Guilt by Association in which an individual, organization, or idea was associated in some way with communism. An association was made between the target of McCarthyism and communism by linking both through some shared idea. For instance, in the 1960s some anti-communists attacked support for civil rights by pointing out that the Communist Party of the United States also supported the civil rights movement or that some of the people who teamed up with the communists in the 1940s supported civil rights. It was then argued that anyone who supported civil rights was thereby supporting communism, whether they intended to or not. This argument commits a syllogistic fallacy, and many other instances of Guilt by Association commit the same fallacy.



‍Straw man- an informal fallacy based on misrepresentation of an opponet's position.
Example :
Prof. Jones: "The university just cut our yearly budget by $10,000."
Prof. Smith: "What are we going to do?"
Prof. Brown: "I think we should eliminate one of the teaching assistant positions. That would take care of it."
Prof. Jones: "We could reduce our scheduled raises instead."
Prof. Brown: " I can't understand why you want to bleed us dry like that, Jones."
Like anyone in real life would ever say that hahaha.
Lassssseeeeeeeeerrrrrrrrrsssssssssss
14. Appeal to Probability:
explanation: says that because something might happen it is definitely going to happen.
Example:
Many people meet Taylor Swift at her concerts. Therefore if you go to her concert, you will meet Taylor Swift.
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Pat Nelson

15.Denial of the antecedent

If you are A and B is true, if your not A, B is not true.
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Ex: If you are Canadian then your are good at hockey, but if your not Canadian, then you are not good at hockey.

Ashley Matousek
Appeal To False Authority:
Your logical fallacies aren't logical fallacies at all because Einstein said so. Einstein also said that this one is better.

Guilt By Association:
You know who else preferred those other logical fallacies?
*(insert pictures of Hitler, Stalin, and Pol Pot here)*
http://freedomainradio.com/board/forums/p/18378/147888.aspx



Steve Piccolio
Stolen Concept - A fallacy where your argument automatically validates the opposing side's argument and disproves your own.

Ex: "The English language is pointless and obsolete." [I disproved my own argument by making it in English]
"A recent survey in Switzerland showed that recent surveys are unreliable" [If recent surveys weren't reliable, I wouldn't have used one]
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http://www.don-lindsay-archive.org/skeptic/arguments.html#stolen


Richard Schiavone
Gambler's Fallacy (Monte Carlo Fallacy) - the belief that if deviations from expected behaviour are observed in repeated independent trials of some random process, future deviations in the opposite direction are then more likely. (ex. flip a coin ten times, get tails nine in a row, gambler's fallacy would say that the next flip will be heads)

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A person who is against LGBTQ rights might say, "Even though studies found that less than 1% of all lesbian mothers are abusive to children, if gay marriage is legalized, that number will rise dramatically." This is an example of gambler's fallacy, because there is no real reason for a rise in child abuse from lesbian parents.
Julie Millinsky. Perfect Solution Fallacy: Assumes that a course of action is no good if it isn't perfect. It is then used to argue that the hypothetical perfect solution must be used, or that a solution is useless because some part of the problem will remain after it has been implemented.
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Example: Being a vegetarian won't stop slaughterhouses from existing and operating. Therefore it is pointless to be a vegetarian in the first place.

Explanation: Although being a vegetarian doesn't prevent slaughterhouses from operating, it can aid to the end of cruelty towards animals. Making many small differences can help to make a large difference.



Sara Sharp: Appeal to Ignorance:
fallacy that a proposition is true based on the fact that it has not been proved false or that it is false because it has not been proven true.
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Example:
The teacher assumes that becasue the class has no questions at the moment they are all reasy for the test.

This is an appeal to ignorance because the class may just not have any questions at the moment but they may not be ready.



Joe Kasprack
Appeal to Wealth:
The appeal to wealth fallacy is committed by any argument that assumes that someone or something is better simply because they are wealthier or more expensive. It is the opposite of the appeal to poverty.
This is a fallacy. Wealth need not be associated with all that is good, and all that is good need not be associated with wealth.
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Example:
Dobby is just a poor house elf, therefore Bellatrix, whom is wealthier, is better than him.
This is wrong because Bellatrix has killed many people, including Sirius Black, while Dobby is a nice helpful house elf.





Brenna Koehler
Appeal to Spite is a fallacy in which spite is substituted for evidence when an "argument" is made against a claim.
  • Claim X is presented with the intent of generating spite.
  • Therefore claim C is false (or true)

explanation: A person has spiteful feelings towards a certain person or a group of people, so they frame their argument to support it by making it seem right. It is an appeal to bitterness rather than evidence and logical reasoning.

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example:
Jill: "I think I'll vote for Jane to be treasurer."
Vicki: "Remember the time that your purse vanished at a meeting last year?"
Jill: "Yes."
Vicki: "Well, I just found out that she stole your purse and stole some other stuff from people."
Jill: "I'm not voting for her!"



Anthony DeAngelis
False Dilemma (Black & White Thinking)-

pattern of reasoning:
1. Either claim X is true or claim Y is true.
2. Claim X is false.
3. Therefore, claim Y is true.
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Example:
The world would end on either May 21, 2011 or December 21, 2012. The world did not end on May 21, 2011. Therefore it will end on December 21, 2012.
Explanation:
This is fallacious because both claims could be false, so it can not be assumed that one is true because the other one is false.


Taylor Draham
Personal Attack-
Making of an abusive remark instead of providing evidence when examining another person's claims or comments
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Example:
In a school debate, Bill claims that the President's economic plan is unrealistic. His opponent, a professor, retorts by saying "the freshman has his facts wrong."

Explanation-A personal attack is committed when a person substitutes abusive remarks for evidence when attacking another person's claim or claims. This line of "reasoning" is fallacious because the attack is directed at the person making the claim and not the claim itself. The truth value of a claim is independent of the person making the claim. After all, no matter how repugnant an individual might be, he or she can still make true claims.

Sam Bieber. Bandwagon Fallacy
definition: A fallacy based on the assumption that the opinion of the majority is always valid: everyone believes it, so you should too.
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"You don't even need to ask your parents to go, just sneak out" said Jenn. "That's what we're all doing."
Explanation: This logical fallacy is very commonly used in today's world and uses peer presure with the "everyone's doing it, so you should too" line. It is a very affective form of persuasion.



Psychogenetic Fallacy:
-if you learn the psychological reason why your opponent likes an argument, then he's biased, so his argument must be wrong.
Example: “How do I know the Bible is true? Because God wrote the Bible. How do I know God wrote the Bible? Because it says so in it, and it’s true.”
Sources: - http://www.don-lindsay-archive.org/skeptic/arguments.html#psycho
- http://www.jaredbhobbs.com/common-fallacies-of-philosophical-debate/

-ericaschules

Biased Sample: This fallacy is committed when a person draws a conclusion about a population based on a sample that is biased or prejudiced in some manner.
Example- Large scale polls were taken in Florida, California, and Maine and it was found that an average of 55% of those polled spent at least fourteen days a year near the ocean. So, it can be safely concluded that 55% of all Americans spend at least fourteen days near the ocean each year.
source
-------------Brenna Lewis----------

  • Appeal To Authority:
    • "Albert Einstein was extremely impressed with this theory." (But a statement made by someone long-dead could be out of date. Or perhaps Einstein was just being polite. Or perhaps he made his statement in some specific context. And so on.) To justify an appeal, the arguer should at least present an exact quote. It's more convincing if the quote contains context, and if the arguer can say where the quote comes from.
    • A variation is to appeal to unnamed authorities .
    • There was a New Yorker cartoon, showing a doctor and patient. The doctor was saying: "Conventional medicine has no treatment for your condition. Luckily for you, I'm a quack." So the joke was that the doctor boasted of his lack of authority.

Devin Dromgoole- "Red Herring" Fallacy: the idea of a Red Herring is to "win" an argument by drawing attention away from the situation at hand.
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Example: "I think that the requirements to graduate from this school should be tougher. After all, I have the coolest beard."

Explanation: A Red Herring fallacy is used in this circumstance because the X claim was distracted by an unrelated Y claim so that the X claim was forgotten about in the argument. This would result in a "win" for the arguer against the X claim.


Christine Miller: Bifurcation Fallacy: used when a false dilemma is presented; when someone is forced to chose between to options when there is clearly a third, more reasonable option available.

Genetic Fallacy: committed when an idea is either accepted or rejected because of its source, rather than its merit.
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My mother told me Santa was real, so it must be true.
-Krista Meyermann

Joseph Connell- Cherry Picking Fallacy: the intentional or unintentional act of choosing specific pieces of information while ignoring most of the argument.
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Casinos use this fallacy by having slot machines go off whenever someone wins.This makes you think that you have a larger chance of success because all you see and hear are people winning, what you don't see or hear are most of the people losing in silence.